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Anatomy Essay–>More DZ Details

24 May

down syndrome

low muscle tone, small mouths which make tongue appear large, tongue thrust, teeth can appear at a late age & be abnormally shaped

CHARGE syndrome

Neonatal brain stem dysfunction causes poor suck swallow mech.  Facial palsy, hyposemia, anatomical problems in structures for sucking, swallowing, and breathing.  Symptoms can also be secondary to exogenious factors such as hospitalization time or dyspnea.

velopharyngeal insufficiency

is the inadequate closing of the velopharyngeal sphincter often due to a congenital abnormality, can result in problems such as hypernasal speech or regurgitation of fluids through the nose when swallowing.

dystonia (oromandibular or cranial)

Disorder of neurological movement.  Muscle spasms.

Wilson’s Disease

Impaired coordination of chewing and swallowing.  Weakness of lips, tongue, and throat muscles.

Parkinson’s Disease

Progressive loss of muscle control.  Weak tongue or cheek muscles can impair chewing & moving food around mouth.  Motor impairment of throat.  Medications can cause lack of saliva.


Damage to brain and brain stem can cause in-coordination of swallowing.  Medications can cause lack of saliva.


This sphincter muscle is normally contracted to close the esophagus. When the sphincter is closed, the contents of the stomach cannot flow back into the esophagus. Backward flow of stomach contents (reflux) can irritate and inflame the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn. The act of swallowing causes a wave of esophageal contraction called peristalsis. Peristalsis pushes food along the esophagus. Normally, peristalsis causes the esophageal sphincter to relax and allow food into the stomach. In achalasia, which means “failure to relax,” the esophageal sphincter remains contracted. Normal peristalsis is interrupted and food cannot enter the stomach.

GERD–>esphogeal stricture

When the lining of the esophagus is damaged, scarring develops. When scarring occurs, the lining of the esophagus becomes stiff. In time, as this scar tissue continues to build up, the esophagus begins to narrow in that area. The result then is swallowing difficulties.

eosinophillic esphogitis

Decreases the ability of the esophagus to stretch and accommodate mouthfuls of swallowed food probably as a result of the presence of so many eosinophils but also, perhaps as a result of some scaring that occurs in the wall of the esophagus.


Injury to the central and periphery nervous system causes difficulty.


cleft palate

A cleft palate can preclude an infant from creating appropriate intraoral negative pressure during suckling.

post-polio syndrome

swallowing abnormalities due to weakness of the bulbar muscles of the tongue, mouth, and throat that increase the risk of choking


Can cause wasting of the esophageal muscle and poor contraction of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Often accompanied by heartburn.


May be responsible for the dysphagia, particularly if it is very large and filled with food or a bezoar.

cervical osteophytes

Mechanical mass narrows esophagus or creates scar tissue.  Inflammatory reaction may produce muscle spasms as well.


bilateral degeneration of the upper motor neuron in the primary motor areas also impairs further adjusted motor areas, which leads to a strong reduction of ‘swallowing related’ cortical activation. While both hemispheres are affected by the degeneration a relatively stronger activation is seen in the right hemisphere.

mysthenia gravis

Antibodies block, alter, or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction which prevents the muscle contraction from occurring. Certain muscles such as those that control eye and eyelid movement, facial expression, chewing, talking, and swallowing are often, but not always, involved in the disorder.

myotonic dystrophy

Mouth, tongue, throat muscle weakness.  Esophageal sphincter laxity causes reflux.

Sjogren’s syndrome

may be related to a combination of lack of saliva and oesophageal dysmotility. As well as reducing lubrication and hence prolonging pharyngeal transit time, absence of saliva predisposes to dental caries and to oral Candida, both of which may impair mastication [17]; it also diminishes the acid clearance capacity of the oesophagus