Triangle + Morphology and Syntax (sort of)

7 Nov

We have a sudden exam in my other class.  The one without a strict syllabus–or dates of any kind.  You know how I can’t stand that.  So in order to practice/study slashing and coding morphemes, I’m taking an unfinished blog and making it a morphology project.

5 Building Blocks of Language:  

Morphology-Morphemes are the smallest units of language that carry meaning.  Brown’s 14 morphemes:  present-progressive ing, plural s, past-tense ed, past-tense irregular, possessive s, 3rd person regular, 3rd person irregular, prepositions on and in, contractible copula, uncontractible copula, contractible auxillary, uncontractible auxillary, Morphological Development is acquiring grammatical, inflectional, derivational phonemes.  Order of morpheme acquisition NOT driven by frequency of input.  IS driven by semantic and syntactic complexity.  Learning affected by 2nd language acquisition, dialect, and secondary language impairment (SLI).  Age that morphemes are mastered should be around 4 y.o.

Syntax-Rules of language governing the internal organization of sentences.  Syntactic Development is increasing the Mean Length of Utterance, using a vareity of sentence modalities (statements, inflectional, and negation) and developing complex syntax.  Learning is affected by ———-.  Syntactic knowledge should be adult-like by age 6.

Phonology–  Phonemes are the smallest unit of SOUND that differentiates meaning.  Phonologic development is acquiring sensitivity to prosodic (parsing streams of speech into smaller units by gaining sensitivity to stress patterns of words and syllables, rhythm, and pausing) and phonotactic (probability of certain sounds occuring in certain position of syllables/words) cues in streams of speech, developing internal representations of phonemes in the inventory of the native language, and acquiring phonemic awareness.  Schrieburg’s 8’s:  first 8 = /h,y,p,b,w,m,n,d/ at 1-3 years old-consistent production by 3 years.  Middle 8 = /f,v,t,k,g,ung,ts,d3/ between 3-6.5 consistent production by 5.5 years.  Late 8 = /th,th, s,z,sh,sh, r,l/5-7.5-consistent production by 7.5 years. Learning is affected by -frequency of occurence in the language (functional lode), # of words used that contains the phoneme, and articulatory complexity required for the phoneme’s production.  Phonemic order of acquisition is usually:  Syllables, rhymes, alliteration (initial then final), onset-rhyme, initial and final sounds, blends, segment words into sounds, initial-final sound elision (what word is found when we take away the first sound in “boat?”  oat) and finally manipulation of phonemes. Usually fully intellegibile speech by 3-4 y.o.

Semantics–  The rules of language governing the MEANING of words.  Words represent concepts.  Semantic development requires developing a lexicon (of 60,000 words), learning new words quickly, and organizing the lexicon within the semantic network for efficient retrieval of words.  Semantic development is affected by exposure to words, gender, and language impairment.  Word-learning speed is affected by concept behind word, phonologic category of word, and contextual influences at the time of initial exposure to words.  Use Nelson’s Taxonomy when word inventory is 50 or less words:  General nominals (refers to a category of objects), specific nominals (refers to a certain object within a category), action words (specific action, social-action games, action inhibitors), modifying words (adjectives and adverbs-describe a property or quality), and personal-social words (describe effective states or relationships).

Pragmatics–  Rules of language governing the how language is used for social purposes.  Pragmatic development is acquiring functional communication, learning conversation skills, and gaining sensitivity to extra-linguistic cues.

Is [unconcop] it call/ed the triangle of health? (8) [interrogative]

Fitness triangle? (0, incomplete utterance)

I don’t know. (3–don’t is automatic and doesn’t count as a contractible 2 morphemes) [negation]

But it speak/3s of balance and talent. (8)

One corner is [concop] physical, one is [concop] mental, and the last is [unconcop] social. (12) [complex syntax, additive]

The ideal is [unconcop] to have an equilateral triangle with an equal balance between all three. (15) [complex syntax]

Most people have an affinity for one area. (8)

What is [concop] your area of affinity? (6) [Interrogative]

I can/n’t say I truly stand out in any of the three area/s. (15) [complex syntax, temporal] [negation]

I was [unconcop] never an all-star athlete. (7)

I DO get muscular in a hurry, but I was [unconcop] never naturally the #1 at any sport of *or [err] athletic endeavor. (20) [complex syntax, causal]

Dedication was [unconcop] always a main component. (6)

I am [concop] not a braniac, [negation] and I have to work really, really hard for anything I accomplish in the realm of intelligence. (unintelligible–let’s just imagine the spelling error is an unintelligible word) [complex syntax, causal]

And I am [concop] wholly lack/ing is *in [err] the social arena, as I am [concop] disagreeable, suspicious, and it exhaust/3s me to deal with people. (24) [complex syntax, causal]

So I guess that make/3s my triangle.  (0, incomplete utterance)

Wide.  (0, incomplete utterance)

Wide and short. (0 incomplete utterance)


articles-  11 opportunities:  11 correct/11correct + 0 omissions + 0 errors = 100% mastery

preposition in- 4 opportunities:  3 correct/ 3 correct + 0 omissions + 1 error = 75% mastery

preposition on- 0 opportunities:  not enough data to calculate mastry

present progressive- 1 opportunities:  Not enough data

regular past tense- 1 opportunity:  Need at least 3, not enough data.

irregular past tense- 0 opportunities:  Not enough data.

3rd person regular- 3 opportunities:  3 correct/3 correct + 0 omissions + 0 errors = 100% mastery

irregular 3rd person- 0 opportunities:  Need at least 3, not enough data.

regular plural- 1 opportunities:  Need at least 3, not enough data.

possessive- 0 opportunities:  Need at least 3, not enough data.

contractible copula- 7 opportunities:  7 correct/7 correct + 0 omissions + 0 errors = 100% mastery.

uncontractible copula- 4 opportunities:  4 correct/4 correct + 0 omissions + 0 errors.

contractible auxillary- 0 opportunities:  Need at least 3, not enough data.

uncontractible auxillary- 0 opportunities:  Need at least 3, not enough data.

MLU Calc:

# morphemes/#complete and intelligible utterances

(8+3+8+12+15+8+6+15+7+20+6+24)/12 = 122/12 = 10.16 MLU

I would have gathered a terrible language sample if this was with a child.  You can’t really prove mastery is a lot of the areas.

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