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It’s Almost Over!

5 Dec

This class, and this semester.  This long, involved project, and studying long hours for this exam.  The grading period.  I just have to buckle down a little longer, and I’m home-free.  Hopefully with A’s.  No, A+ x2.  Anyway, so here’s tomorrow’s Language Development Exam from memory to help me study:

fire 5

1.  Know all about babbling.

-Early stages of Infant Vocalizations:

a)  Reflexive (0-8 wk)

[Side-note:  it is SO annoying that kid’s ages are written in smaller measurements, like weeks when it could be months, or months when it could be years!  2 months is a lot for meaningful to me then 8 weeks.]

Anyway, 0-8 wk and is characterized by sounds of distress and discomfort like crying and fussing, as well as vegetative during feeding, such as grunts, burps, and sighs.

They have no control over these primary sounds.

adults infer intentionality to these sounds

b)  Control of Phonation (6-16 wk)

[I guess stages overlap to account for individual differences, but also = annoying.]

“Coos” and “goos.”  Sounds produced at the back of the oral cavity (velar) b/c they require little articulatory precision.  Also, vowels and nasals are produced at this stage.

c)  Expansion (4-6 mo)

vowels and glides

They start to experiment with loudness and pitch.  Also make random noises such as, yelling, growls, squeal, trills, raspberries, laughter, clicks, etc. . .

caregivers can imitate sounds at this stage.

d) Control of Articulation (5-8 mo)

Marginal babbling with consonant and vowel-like sounds.

prefer plosives and nasals-this is for the canonical stage

e) Cononical [how do you pronounce THAT one?] babbling (6-10 m0)

true babbling of 2 forms:

reduplicated babbling-repeated CV combos (ma ma ma or da, da, da)

non-reduplicated/varigated babbling-non-repeating CV combos (da, goo, ga, ma)

f)  advanced forms (10-18 mo)

dipthongs-  2 vowel positions in one sound. 2 vowel sounds in one syllable.

jargon-  specialized babbling that incorporates melodic patterns of the infant’s native language.  Not true words, b/c it isn’t intentional (no) or referential or convey meaning.

complex C-V combonations:  CVC (gag), VCV (omo), CCV ().

2.  Know all about IDS

a)  infant directed speech, child-directed speech, parentease, or motherese

Speech used in communication situations with young language learners.

b)  infants prefer it.

c1)  it’s sing-song, high pitch, and slow rate tempo is designed to capture and sustain an infant’s attention.

c2) has a lot of extralinguistic notes say paralinguistic cues-manner of speech outside of language no, linguistic info.  Conveys emotion and intent

d)  The vowels, pauses, and pitch-peaks at the end of utterances are exaggerated.  Modified prosidy.

e)  Low MLU, highlights content words and downplays function words, and limits complex syntax fewer subordinate clauses.

f) [I must have been getting tired–I know this one] More repetitions and questions

3.  Joint Attention:

a) is when 2 people are simultaneously mentally focused on the same external object or action.

b)  Provides a lot of word learning opportunities for infants, and directly relates to language development and performance.  Quality as well as quantity are imperative to language development.

c) Initiated when infant begins to alternate gaze between the object of interest and communication partner (6 mo).

d)  Signs of emerging joint attention are:  Emergence to social partners, emergence to coordination and sustained attention for social partner, and transition to language.

4.  Intersubjective awareness-Is the recognition of sharing a mental focus on an external object or action with another person.

b) exp of intentional communication- alternating eye gaze, gestures, and persisting toward goals.

c)  it signals:  intentional communication-starts when infants interpret others’ actions as intentional.  A deliberate attempt to communicate.

5.  Pointing:

a) imperative-the first prod.  Requests an adult retrieve an object. (about 10 mo)

exp:  point to a bottle across the room signaling they want it.

b) declarative-Understood and produced after imperative pointing.

calls an adult’s attention to an object, or comment on an object.

communication between infants and adults.

To use it, infants must understand the intentions of others.

exp:  Point to a broken wheel on a toy to indicate it needs fixed.

exp 2:  Point to the dog, as a way of commenting on the dog or its actions.

c) referential-Precise referent and stable meaning across contexts.

exp:  holding hand up to ear to indicate telephone.

May be used in combination with a word.

Used less often as lexicon grows. (2-word combo, between 18-24 mo)

6.  Caregiver responsiveness:

adult sensitivity and responsiveness to infant/toddler communication attempts.

a)  important for language development in infants.  Linked to milestones such as first words and 2 word combos.

Promotes ability and desire to communicate.

b)  signs of it:


-wait & listen

-follow infant’s lead

-join in and play

-ask a variety of questions, and provide labels

-extend and expand

-encourage turn-taking

7.  Types of early infant/toddler language:

a)  referential-  Enjoys labeling people and objects, high freq of objects.

enjoy labeling people and objects.

mostly uses nominals.

Experiences a larger spurt when other types of words are added to lexicon.

exp:  “a dog, a cat, blue ball.”

b)  expressive-Uses language primarily for social-interactional exchanges.

Words from more categories.

Express needs, share describe feelings.

exp:  “bye bye, I’m tired, want ball.”

Less dramatic language spurt.

8.  Think CDI stands for:  Communication development Inventory

Are parent answers reliable and valid?

She says yes--look this up.

It’s a normed test based on diary studies.  Asks parents only about current behaviors, doesn’t rely on recall, and doesn’t have parents lists things, rather check off options.


9.  Principles of Lexical Development:

A) 1st Tier Priciples:  develop as soon as words are present.

a)  principle of referential reference-symbols of objects, actions, events, and concepts.  Everything has a label.

b)  principle of extendability- words label categories, not just original exemplar.

c)  principle of object scope- words map onto whole objects.

B) 2nd Tier principles:  Later developing.  Require more skill.

a) principle of conventionality- expands on principle of referential reference.

communication will only be successful if terms of own language community are adopted.

b) principle of category scope-builds on principle of extendability.

Extension only to taxonomically similar words (within same category).

c)  principle of novel name-nameless-the unknown object will receive the novel label.

10) fast-mapping-  Words are stored in the short-term memory after only a few brief exposures.  How we learn language so quickly, especially during vocab spurt during 1st 5-7 years of life.

11) morpheme- The smallest unit of language that conveys meaning. (vs. phoneme, which is the smallest unit of SOUND that differentiates meaning).

12.  referential gestures-see Q5.

13.  1/3 of toddler language.  Is overgeneneralized in an overextension.  Check this term.

a) categorical-extended to words in same category.

exp: horse is called a dog.  Both under the same superordinate category of animals.

b)  analogical-extend words to perceptually similar words.

exp:  Every rectangular object (DVD, box of checks, remote control)is called a book, because they look alike.

c)  relational- extended to semantically or thematically related words.

exp:  Flowers describe vases, trowels, fertilizer, because they are all gardening-related

14) early-talkers = between 11-21 months, any child that produces in top 10% in age category for #words.

ahead of peers in expressive language.

[Wow, I must be getting tired (I am) because that was not the most clear way to define that]

early-talkers maintain their advantage throughout childhood with #expressive vocab words, increased MLU, and better inductive vocab no, verbal reasoning skills.

15.  Grammatical morphemes

Inflections added to words to indicate aspects of grammar.

a)  appear between 18-24 months, or after 50 words are produced.

b)  first are present-progrssive ing (check this)

c)  also past-tense ed, plural and possessive s.

16.  MLU:

a) mean length of utterance.

b) shows complexity of utterances children’s language, and development level can be determined using Brown’s chart.

c) calculation is #morphemes/#complete and intellegible utterances in a minimum 50 utterance sample.  Comes out as some decimal.

d) MLUm is more specific then just calculating words per sentence, because it accounts for inflectional and derivational knowledge, by using the smallest units of language.  Shows syntactic complexity.

17) PCU = phonetically consistant form

a) these are proto-words, that are consistently and meaningfully produced with the same no, different referent  but do not approximate the adult pronunciation.  Not counted as true words, but in a late-talker counted as intentional utterances.

Shows they’ve learned value of stable prod.

exp:  “baaa” every time for water.

18) thematics (pragmatic development)

a) agent-action


b) agent-object


c) agent-locant


d) object-action


e) object-locant


f) possessor-possession


g) object-attribute



-that ball

B) book:

-agent-entity receiving action/mvmt

-theme-the actual action/mvmt

-source-starting point for mvmt

-location-where the mvmt occurs (main action)

-goal-ending point for mvmt

19) indicators of intentionality:

a)  alternating gaze between object of interest and communication partner

b) referential gestures

c)  persist toward goals by repeating or modifying

20)  criteria for true words:

a)  Clear purpose and intention

b)  recognizable pronunciation (that approximates adult form)

c) used consistently, and generalized outside of initial context.

21:  Why comprehension precedes production

a)  Must retreive lexical entry

b) Apply pronunciation

c) organize syntactically

d) show pragmatic features- intonation

–>In receptive language, the lexical entry only needs to be retrieved, the rest is done by speaker.

22)  overextention- Using a word too generally.  Extending beyond the basic word category.

a) categorical- extends to words in same category

b) analogical- extends to perceptually-similar words.

c) relational- extends to thematically/semantically similar words.

a) vs underextension-  Shy, conservative use of new words.  Not utilizing all opportunities within the word category.

exp:  “Cup” only means their red sippy.

exp 2:  “Book” is own paperbacks, but not library books, or parents’ hard cover books.

b) much more common.

23) categorical hierarchy:

a) superordinate-highest level.  Most broad classification.  Among last words learned.

exps:  reading materials, auto, animals, fruit, entertainment, clothing, nature

b) basic-middle level.  First words understood and produced.  Generic and general terms.

exps:  book, car, bear, apple, toy, shirt, tree

c) subordinate-lowest level.  Very specific terms.

exps:  paperback, Jetta, polarbear, Golden Delicious, hula-hoop, crew neck, Elm

crazy tree

Believe me, even though my grade is riding on the outcome of this exam, I am just as bored as you are.  Maybe more so.  I’ll dig out my notes and make corrections and editions tomorrow morning before class.  Then, during my break between classes I’ll go over my notes and flashcards.  More.  I hope I can pull off a minimum of a 94% on this one.  And then, lemme get to Christmas and New Years and winter break!  And preparations for next semester. . .