Paraphrase Neurologic ALS

7 Dec

Anatomy 041I can’t remember if I once knew this skill and got out of practice and subsequently forgot, or if I never knew in the first place.  Paraphrasing.  It’s hard.  I feel like there should be some trick.  Or at least helpful tips or hints.  But if I knew them before, I sure don’t now.

It’s a scary thing too, because one honest citation/referencing mistake and it could be expulsion.  It makes me afraid.  And makes me think my blog teaches me bad habits.  I definitely plargarize on my blog ALL the time.  I figure people (like myself) put things on the internet knowing anyone and everyone can use them.  And certainly, some unscrupulous person could just copy and paste words from the web into their assignment.  Which I regularly use pics, without citing them, but I would never copy anything for a grade.  Or an essay.  Or for publication or anything like that.  Mostly, my blogging plagiarism stems from laziness.

Which is not the case for school.  Any plagiarized material is pure ignorance.  Or having to write a Fur Ball 2012 063paper with a partner who does not use reputable cites or know how to cite anything correctly.  Anyway, so that’s the story of why I can sleep as of late.  I’m lying awake wondering just how seriously my anatomy professor is going to take the (probable, inevitable) plagiarism in our paper. . .

But it’s too late now.  I ran out of time, had to focus on the exam in my other class where I was suddenly sitting on the A-B borderline (98% on that exam, PS) so the paper had to be turned it.  Finished to my standards or not.  So why fret?  I guess what’s done is done, so I just have to hope everything turns out.  But here’s some of the old preliminary work I had been doing.

-Kawai et al. (2003) decribes ALS as idiopathic progressive disease that affects both upper and lower motor neurons.  They go on to describe that the degradation of motor neurons stemming from the medulla, pons, and spinal cord can result in a wide variety of symptoms such as decreased muscle strength and muscle atrophy as well as bulbar palsy.


– Kasarskis et al., 1996, explains atrophy of motor neurons in the ventral gray matter of the spinal cord and motor cortex is what causes the symptoms evident in muscle impairment.


-Amazingly, as some motor neurons are degenerating, the remaining, yet-uncompromised motor neurons attempt to reinnervate the atrophied muscle fibers as described by Kasarskis et al., 1996.  This repair is successful at first, as the previously degenerated muscles do regain their previous normal size.  However, this mechanism is exhausted as the rate of motor neuron death exceeds potential of surviving motor neurons available to reinnervate their degenerated counterparts.

Mom's Camera day 2 071-According to Kawai et al. (2003), balbar palsy is the primary feature of dysphagia in ALS patients and it is caused by degeneration of the motor nuclei in cranial nerves IX, X, and XII.

-In their dietary study of ALS patients, Kasarskis et al., 1996 showed mineral levels in the blood were uncompromised, except for Calcium.  The data showed there was a significant increase in serum total Calcium in relation to death, which could be attributed to mobilization of the mineral from inactivity.

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